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Publications 2017

Balls, Barbecues and Boxing: Contesting gender regimes at organizational social events

What do the relaxed social events held by companies and organizations do for continued gender inequality? This article argues that outings, barbecues and parties offer opportunities for members of an organization to challenge unequal gender regimes. But they can also end up maintaining these inequalities instead. The article draws on Joan Acker’s theory of gendered organizations, and Judith Butler’s notion of gender performativity. Based on 208 accounts of organizations’ social events, it identifies the following four areas of gender performativity and their varying significance in reaffirming or challenging unequal gender regimes: gender images, status differences, the body and sexuality. The findings indicate that practices reaffirming unequal gender regimes outnumber practices that possibly balance or break them. Paradoxically, practices that challenge unequal gender regimes, when joined with powerful responses from the hitherto privileged party, can form a vicious circle which again ends up continuing unequal gender regimes. The article provides a more nuanced understanding of ambivalences and the contested nature of gender regimes which is important in identifying avenues for gender equality.

Ortlieb, R. and Sieben, B. (2017): Balls, Barbecues and Boxing: Contesting gender regimes at organizational social events, in: Organization Studies, pp. 1-19, doi: doi.org/10.1177/0170840617736941 [16.11.2017].

Contact: Renate Ortlieb, Department of Human Resources Management, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7189

 
Regionale Resilienz: Zukunftsfähig Wohlstand schaffen

Resilienz ist die neue Nachhaltigkeit – meinen manche. Das stimmt wohl, wenn man ihre Popularität, die Hoffnungen, die sich darum ranken, dann aber auch die Beliebigkeit und den semantischen Missbrauch betrachtet, der mit dem Begriff zuweilen betrieben wird. In ihrem vorliegenden Buch schauen die AutorInnen genauer hin, was sich hinter dem Schlagwort verbirgt und was der Begriff hergibt, wenn man Klarheit über aktuelle Probleme und alternative Wege einer zukunftsfähigen regionalen Entwicklung gewinnen möchte.
Das Buch startet mit einer Kritik expansiv-moderner Entwicklung, die – angesichts von Klimawandel und Peak Oil-Szenarien – globale Probleme verschärft und Regionen immer verletzlicher macht. Resilienz steht vor diesem Hintergrund für einen Perspektivenwechsel, auch im Nachdenken über nachhaltige Entwicklung: hin zu Lösungen, die keine „große Transformation” voraussetzen, sondern vor Ort und jetzt schon funktionieren. Daraus entwickeln die AutorInnen eine normative Vision regionaler Resilienz, die eine Re-Regionalisierung der Wirtschaft und die Entwicklung und Anwendung sozialer Innovationen vorsieht. Was das konkret bedeutet, wird im Buch nicht nur theoretisch dargelegt. Die AutorInnen präsentieren darin auch zehn Fallbeispiele (darunter die Transition-Bewegung), an denen deutlich wird, was mit regionaler Resilienz in vielen „kleinen Transformationen” verbunden und letztlich auch gewonnen ist – nämlich Zukunft.

Raith, D., Deimling, D., Ungericht, B. and Wenzel, E. (2017): Regionale Resilienz: Zukunftsfähig Wohlstand schaffen, Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg.

Contact: Bernhard Ungericht, Department of Accounting and Reporting, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3642

 
Service-Learning in der wissenschaftlichen Berufsvorbildung von Wirtschaftspädagog/inn/en - Ergebnisse einer Mixed-Method-Studie

Service-Learning hat als Veranstaltungsformat sowohl im schulischen als auch im universitären Bereich in den deutschsprachigen Ländern in den letzten Jahren Eingang gefunden. Nach der ersten Euphorie der Einführung ist es an der Zeit, die dadurch erhofften Wirkungen empirisch zu überprüfen, insbesondere hinsichtlich der Frage, welche Wirkungen für die Lernenden aus diesem Format entstehen. In diesem Beitrag werden die Ergebnisse einer Mixed-Method-Studie zur Umsetzung bzw. Wirkung einer Service-Learning Lehrveranstaltung im Rahmen des Masterstudiums Wirtschaftspädagogik an der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz vorgestellt und anhand der Ergebnisse wird versucht, Rückschlüsse auf die didaktische Modellierung zu ziehen.

Slepcevic-Zach, P. (2017): Service-Learning in der wissenschaftlichen Berufsvorbildung von Wirtschaftspädagog/inn/en – Ergebnisse einer Mixed-Method-Studie, in: Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, Vol. 113, No. 2, pp. 303-324.

Contact: Peter Slepcevic-Zach, Department of Business Education and Development, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7271

 
Photovoltaic self-consumption regulation in Spain: Profitability analysis and alternative regulation schemes

Having achieved grid parity, photovoltaic (PV) self-consumption will play a key role in the transition to a low-carbon energy system. Spain, whilst among the EU countries with highest solar irradiation, has recently passed one of the most restrictive self-consumption regulations. We study the implications of this regulation in comparison with alternatives (net metering, net billing) on the profitability (internal rate of return) of potential residential, commercial and industrial investors, as well as the impact of PV self-consumption on government revenues and the electricity system. We find that this regulation hinders the diffusion of PV self-consumption applications by making them economically infeasible. It also creates inefficient disincentives for demand-side adjustment and by fostering disconnection from the grid. Under the current conditions, the direct economic impact of PV self-consumption on both aggregate government and electricity system revenues is positive for investments in the residential segment, negligible for those of the commercial segment and negative for those of the industrial segment. In order to raise compliance with the relevant European Commission guidelines and to promote the diffusion of PV systems at minimum cost to the electricity system, a dynamic net billing scheme is recommended.

López Prol, J. and Steininger, K. W. (2017): Photovoltaic self-consumption regulation in Spain: Profitability analysis and alternative regulation schemes, in: Energy Policy, Vol. 108, pp. 742-754, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.06.019.

Contact: Karl Steininger, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3451

 
An Exact Fatou's Lemma for Gelfand Integrals by Means of Young Measure Theory

We show that an exact version of Fatou's lemma for Gelfand integrable functions can be obtained by combining Young measure techniques and results due to E. J. Balder [New fundamentals of Young measure convergence, in: S. Reich, A. Ioffe and I. Shafrir (eds.), Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control, Chapman and Hall 2000, 24-48; and A Fatou lemma for Gelfand integrals by means of Young measure theory, Positivity 6 (2002) 317-329] with a purification result of M. Greinecker and K. Podczeck [Purification and roulette wheels, Economic Theory 58 (2015) 255-272].

Greinecker, M. and Podczeck, K. (2017): An Exact Fatou's Lemma for Gelfand Integrals by Means of Young Measure Theory, in: Journal of Convex Analysis, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 621-644.

Contact: Michael Greinecker, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3454

 
The shortest connection game

We introduce the Shortest Connection Game, a two-player game played on a directed graph with edge costs. Given two designated vertices in which the players start, the players take turns in choosing edges emanating from the vertex they are currently located at. This way, each of the players forms a path that origins from its respective starting vertex. The game ends as soon as the two paths meet, i.e., a connection between the players is established. Each player has to carry the cost of its chosen edges and thus aims at minimizing its own total cost. In this work we analyse the computational complexity of Shortest Connection Game. On the negative side, Shortest Connection Game turns out to be computationally hard even on restricted graph classes such as bipartite, acyclic and cactus graphs. On the positive side, we can give a polynomial time algorithm for cactus graphs when the game is restricted to simple paths.

Darmann, A., Pferschy, U. and Schauer, J. (2017): The shortest connection game, in: Discrete Applied Mathematics, Vol. 231, pp. 139-154, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.dam.2017.01.024.

Contact: Ulrich Pferschy, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3496

 
How individual needs influence motivation effects: a neuroscientific study on McClelland's need theory

In this study, we investigate motivation theory using neuroscientific methods as a new lens of analysis. More detailed, we neurally test the assumptions that (1) heterogeneous rewards may result in similarly rewarding effects and (2) that these effects are enhanced if a reward closely matches an employee’s need. Therefore, we conducted an fMRI-study (n=44) in which participants completed decision tasks before receiving the heterogeneous rewards high income, respectful leadership and a company car. Additionally, participants provided information on their need for achievement, affiliation and power. Our study demonstrates that a closer matching between the type of reward and the participants’ individual needs results in stronger neural activations in the reward circuitry. These findings support key assumptions of McClelland’s need theory on a neural level and further promote a personality-based approach to work motivation. From a practical standpoint they suggest need-tailored reward systems for organizations and an increased use of rewards other than money.

Rybnicek, R., Bergner, S. and Gutschelhofer, A. (2017): How individual needs influence motivation effects: A neuroscientific study on McClelland’s need theory, in: Review of Managerial Science, doi: doi.org/10.1007/s11846-017-0252-1 [31.10.2017].

Contact: Robert Rybnicek, Department of Corporate Leadership and Entrepreneurship, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7355

 
Nutzen österreichische Unternehmen Steueroasen?

Bedingt durch den globalen Wettbewerb versuchen internationale Konzerne verstärkt, ihre Steuerzahlungen durch die Gründung von Tochterunternehmen in Steueroasen zu senken. Dieser Beitrag untersucht erstmals Konzernstrukturen von 18.924 österreichischen Mutterunternehmen über den Zeitraum 1998-2013. Dabei zeigt sich, dass rund 3-5% der ausländischen Tochterunternehmen in Steueroasen angesiedelt sind, wobei insbesondere die Schweiz, Zypern und Luxemburg als Standorte genutzt werden. Die Steuerzahlung österreichischer Mutterunternehmen fällt umso niedriger aus, je größer der Anteil an ausländischen Tochterunternehmen in Steueroasen ist – dies ist ein Indiz dafür, dass österreichische Mutterunternehmen Steueroasen zur gezielten Steuervermeidung nutzen.

Herbst, C., Niemann, R. and Rünger, S. (2017): Nutzen österreichische Unternehmen Steueroasen?, in: Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis, Heft 4, pp. 432-450.

Contact: Rainer Niemann, Department of Accounting and Taxation, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 6444

 
The Internet of Things as Disruptive Innovation for the Advertising Ecosystem

The connection of physical and virtual objects via the Internet, the Internet of Things (IoT), is one of the most up-and-coming technologies in the digital age. First signs show that the IoT will have a tremendous impact on the whole advertising ecosystem formed by media, agencies, advertisers, and the consumer. Analysing early implementations of the IoT in the health and fitness sector and their impact on the advertising ecosystem, the article shows fundamental alterations in the information-disinformation relation between the involved players and subsequently the impact on their business models. It should also give a guideline for consumers to exploit the new opportunities of the IoT to communicate with brands and products and to become aware of associated threads.

Petrovic, O. (2017): The Internet of Things as Disruptive Innovation for the Advertising Ecosystem, in: Siegert, G., Rimscha, M. B. und Grubenmann, S. (Ed.): Commercial Communication in the Digital Age. Information or Disinformation?, De Gruyter, Berlin, New York, pp. 183-206.

Contact: Otto Petrovic, Department of Information Science and Information Systems, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7184

 
Die Grenzen der Finanzmärkte

Die in Wirtschaftssoziologie und Politischer Ökonomie breit diskutierte These der „Finanzialisierung” von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft wird in diesem Beitrag kritisch bilanziert. Ausgangspukt ist die Frage, was Finanzmarktakteure „auf“ Finanzmärkten eigentlich beobachten, und was sich ihrem Beobachtungsradar entzieht. Auf dieser Grundlage wird gezeigt, dass Ausmaß und Häufigkeit der Beeinflussung eines Unternehmens der „Realökonomie” durch Finanzmarktakteure nicht modellschematisch erklärt werden kann, sondern von der Statuslage des betreffenden Unternehmens abhängt.

Kraemer, K. (2017): Die Grenzen der Finanzmärkte, in: Faust, M., Kädtler, J. and Wolf, H. (Ed.): Finanzmarktkapitalismus? Der Einfluss von Finanzialisierung auf Arbeit, Wachstum und Innovation, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt, New York, pp. 123-154.

Contact: Klaus Kraemer, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3546

 
Election outcomes under different ways to announce preferences: an analysis of the 2015 parliament election in the Austrian federal state of Styria

We use preference data from the 2015 parliament election in the Austrian federal state of Styria to analyze different voting rules. An exit poll right after the election collected data on ordinal and cardinal preferences from approximately 1000 actual voters. Our analysis is threefold. First, we determine the hypothetical social outcomes under different voting rules; second, we investigate the stability of the outcomes under those rules. Finally, we provide a categorization of different types of parties and analyze the impact of certain voting rules (Plurality Rule, Plurality Run Off, Hare System, Condorcet Method, Approval Voting, Borda Rule, Evaluative Voting, and Majority Judgment) on the performances of parties in those scenarios.

Darmann, A., Grundner, J. and Klamler, C. (2017): Election outcomes under different ways to announce preferences: an analysis of the 2015 parliament election in the Austrian federal state of Styria, in: Public Choice, Vol. 173, No. 1-2, pp. 201-216, doi: doi.org/10.1007/s11127-017-0472-6 [16.08.2017].

Contact: Andreas Darmann, Department of Public Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7139

 
Core equivalence with differentiated commodities

This paper presents improved core equivalence results for atomless economies with differentiated commodities in the framework of Ostroy and Zame (1994). Commodity bundles are elements of the space M(K) of signed Borel measures on a compact space K of commodity characteristics. Ostroy and Zame provide two sufficient conditions for core equivalence: It is sufficient that markets are ”physically thick”, so that there are many suppliers of every commodity, or that markets are ”economically thick”, so that consumers are sufficiently willing to substitute commodities with a similar composition for each other. The sufficient conditions in Ostroy and Zame (1994) all imply that there are ”many more agents than commodities”, an idea of Aumann that was formalized and discussed in Tourky and Yannelis (2001) and Greinecker and Podczeck (2016). We generalize the framework in Ostroy and Zame (1994) and weaken their sufficient conditions to not imply the presence of ”many more agents than commodities”. In particular, we drop the requirement that K is metrizable from the basic model, the requirement of an uniform bound on endowments from the condition of ”physically thick markets”, and the requirement that preferences are weak∗-continuous from the condition of ”economically thick markets”. Core equivalence still holds, showing that ”many more agents than commodities” are not needed for core equivalence in models of commodity differentiation.

Greinecker, M. and Podczeck, K. (2017): Core equivalence with differentiated commodities, in: Journal of Mathematical Economics, Vol. 73, pp. 54-67, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.jmateco.2017.08.005.

Contact: Michael Greinecker, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3454

 
Immaterial and monetary gifts in economic transactions: evidence from the field

Reciprocation of monetary gifts is well-understood in economics. In contrast, there is little research on reciprocal behavior following immaterial gifts like compliments. We narrow this gap and investigate how employees reciprocate after receiving immaterial gifts and material gifts over time. We purchase (1) ice cream from fast food restaurants, and (2) durum doner, a common lunch snack, from independent vendors. Prior to the food’s preparation, we either compliment or tip the salesperson. We find that salespersons reciprocate compliments with higher product weight than in a control treatment. Importantly, this reciprocal behavior following immaterial gifts grows over repeated transactions. Tips, in contrast, have a stronger level effect which does not change over time.

Kirchler, M. and Palan, S. (2017): Immaterial and monetary gifts in economic transactions: evidence from the field, in: Experimental Economics, pp. 1-26, doi: doi.org/10.1007/s10683-017-9536-1 [02.08.2017].

Contact: Stefan Palan, Department of Banking and Finance, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7306

 
Clustering, Knowledge Sharing, and Intrabrand Competition: A Multiyear Analysis of an Evolving Franchise System

As franchise systems expand, the clustering and resulting proximity of same-brand outlets often become contentious issues. The increased interactions among outlets may facilitate knowledge sharing, even while inducing intrabrand competition. Prior research has considered each possibility – nowledge sharing or intrabrand competition – in isolation, resulting in conflicting recommendations to the central question whether multiple same-brand outlets should be close to or distant from one another. In this study, the authors take the perspective of the focal outlet and show that the opportunity to share knowledge afforded by clustering-based proximity may or may not be realized, depending on the motivation and ability of the proximal outlets to share knowledge, the focal outlet's ability to absorb knowledge, and the governance context. An analysis of more than 8,000 observations on the 988 outlets of a U.S.-based automotive service franchise system from 1977 to 2012, and corresponding outlet-level sales information from 2004 to 2012, provides support for the authors' hypotheses.

Butt, M. N., Antia, K. D., Murtha, B. R. and Kashyap, V. (2017): Clustering, Knowledge Sharing, and Intrabrand Competition: A Multiyear Analysis of an Evolving Franchise System, in: Journal of Marketing, doi: doi.org/10.1509/jm.16.0173 [23.08.2017].

Contact: Vishal Kashyap, Department of Marketing, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7210

 
Developing international talents: how organisational and individual perspectives interact

Purpose – Focusing on an international trainee- and internship programme, this paper aims to propose a new framework that links organisational strategies regarding ethnic diversity with career competencies of the programme participants.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts a case study design. It examines the interplay of the perspectives of the organisation, which is an Austrian bank, and of the programme participants, who are university graduates from South-Eastern Europe. It draws on the typology of diversity strategies by Ortlieb and Sieben (2013) and the categorisation of individual career competencies by DeFillippi and Arthur (1994).
Findings – The bank benefits from the programme participants’competencies with regard to South-Eastern Europe and increased legitimacy gained from the public. Programme participants acquire many knowing-how, knowing-why and knowing-whom competencies,especially if the bank pursues a so-called learning strategy towards ethnic diversity. On the other hand, individual knowing-how competency supports an organisation’s antidiscrimination strategy, whereas knowing-why and knowing-whom competencies benefit the organizational learning strategy.
Research limitations/implications – Although the paper builds on a single case study and the ability to generalise is limited, the findings imply that future human resource development concepts should jointly consider the perspectives of both organisations and individuals.
Practical implications – Owing to their high strategic relevance, organisations should look into the competencies of skilled migrants and evaluate the critical resources they offer. Both organisational learning and an organisation’s strategic development are key concerns. The proposed framework helps to effectively design trainee- and internship programmes and simultaneously anticipate organisational and individual consequences thereof at an early stage.
Originality/value – The proposed framework concerning the interplay between organisational and individual perspectives as well as the regional focus on South-Eastern Europe present novelties.

Hirt, C., Ortlieb, R., Winterheller, J., Bešić, A. and Scheff, J. (2017): Developing international talents: how organisational and individual perspectives interact, in: European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 41, No. 7, pp. 610-627.

Contact: Christian Hirt, Department of Human Resources Management, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3648

 
Managerial Discretion in Accruals and Informational Efficiency

In this paper, the authors examine the relation between managerial discretion in accruals and informational efficiency. They find that informational efficiency, measured by the price deviation from a random walk pattern using stock return variance ratios, increases in the extent to which managers exercise discretion over accruals. The results are consistent with the view that discretionary accruals, on average, convey useful information to investors and facilitate the price convergence to its fundamental value. The findings are robust to a battery of tests, including tests to validate both the measures of informational efficiency and the measure of managerial discretion in accruals.

Perotti, P. and Windisch, D. (2017): Managerial Discretion in Accruals and Informational Efficiency, in: Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Vol. 44, No. 3/4, pp. 375–416, doi: 10.1111/jbfa.12241.

Contact: David Windisch, Center for Accounting Research, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7280

 
Die Geschichte der Soziologie im Spiegel der Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (KZfSS)

Die Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (KZfSS) gehört seit ihrer Gründung im deutschsprachigen Raum zu den zentralen Fachzeitschriften der Soziologie. Zahlreiche Beiträge der KZfSS prägten die Debatten, Kontroversen und Verlaufsprozesse der Soziologie in Deutschland oder spiegelten zentrale Fachdiskussionen und gesellschaftliche Entwicklungen wider. Ausgehend von ausgewählten Aufsätzen aus der KZfSS werden zentrale Stationen der Geschichte der Soziologie in Deutschland belichtet und nach dem Wandel soziologischer Kritik gefragt. Der Beitrag eröffnet das Sonderheft 69 der Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie.

Moebius, S. (2017): Die Geschichte der Soziologie im Spiegel der Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (KZfSS), in: Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 69., Supplement 1, pp. 3-44, doi: doi.org/10.1007/s11577-017-0433-6 [07.09.2017].

Contact: Stephan Moebius, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7081

 
Agency, exchange, and power in scholastic thought

The socio-economic reasoning of the schoolmen originated from heterogeneous roots and influences and developed over centuries. This is reflected in divergent interpretations of scholastic economic thought. Two conceptual coordinates are used to put those discussions into a common perspective: (1) the distinction between agency-sensitive vs. agency-neutral exchange; (2) the divide between intellectualism and voluntarism. While focussing important theological influences on key issues of economic thought, this allows for a critical account of continuity of problems, while at the same time taking seriously the profound transformation of knowledge systems since the scholastic era.

Sturn, R. (2017): Agency, exchange, and power in scholastic thought, in: The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 640-669, doi: doi.org/10.1080/09672567.2017.1338393 [05.07.2017].

Contact: Richard Sturn, Department of Public Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3461

 
Abraham Wald's Complete Class Theorem and Knightian Uncertainty

I study the implications of Wald's (1947) complete class theorem for decision making under Knightian uncertainty (or ambiguity). Suppose we call someone who uses Wald's approach to statistical decision making a Waldian. A Waldian may then have preferences over acts that are not in agreement with subjective expected utility but always chooses as if she was a subjective expected utility maximizer. In particular, even Wald's (1945) minmax decision rule is consistent with subjective expected utility.

Kuzmics, C. (2017): Abraham Wald’s Complete Class Theorem and Knightian Uncertainty, in: Games and Economic Behavior, Vol. 104, pp. 666-673, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.geb.2017.06.012.

Contact: Christoph Kuzmics, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7111

 
Various motivations for managerial (mis)reporting - an experimental study

In the experiment we model all possible consequences from misreporting for both the shareholder and for the manager, since we are interested in patterns in reporting behaviour resulting from different motivations for potential misrepresentation. This allows for examining the stability of the (mis)reporting behaviour in different treatments. Agents are primarily driven by the consequences for themselves rather than by the consequences for the principal, while deciding on misreporting. Participants are willing to sacrifice a small gain for themselves in order to prevent a greater loss for the principal. If agents misreport, they do it in order to generate positive rather than negative consequences for themselves. Reports in favour of the principal, but fruitless or even costly for the agent are very rare. The experiment indicates also that pro-social agents report more truthfully than pro-self agents.

Rasmußen, A. and Leopold-Wildburger, U. (2016): Various motivations for managerial (mis)reporting – an experimental study, in: Optimization. A Journal of Mathematical Programming and Operations Research, pp. 1-18, doi: dx.doi.org/10.1080/02331934.2016.1247158 [15.11.2016].

Contact: Ulrike Leopold-Wildburger, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3492

 
Two-stage capital budgeting, capital charge rates, and resource constraints

We study two-stage, multi-division budgeting mechanisms that allocate scarce resources among divisions using capital charge rates. Each divisional manager observes private sequential project information and competes for scarce resources over two stages. The optimal capital charge rates in our two-stage setting can be quite different from those that arise in a single-stage setting. If the firm faces a resource constraint at only the second stage, a less severe constraint can imply more first-stage project initiation, which can lead to higher second-stage capital charge rates. If resources are constrained at both stages, a decrease in the severity of the constraint at just one stage decreases the capital charge rate at that stage but increases the capital charge rate at the other stage because each constraint affects the intensity of competition at both stages. This result holds regardless of whether the scarce resources are fungible or non-fungible across stages.

Johnson, N. B., Pfeiffer, T. and Schneider, G. (2017): Two-stage capital budgeting, capital charge rates, and resource constraints, in: Review of Accounting Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 933-963.

Contact: Georg Schneider, Department of Accounting and Reporting, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3641

 
Using ePortfolios to Encourage Reflection and Competency Development. Results and Implications from an Accompanying Study and an Alumni Study

The Purpose of the research described within this paper is to evaluate the impact and sustainability of an ePortfolio (ePF)-initiative for students within a five-semester Master’s Program for Business Education and Development via an accompanying study among current students and an alumni study among former students. The accompanying study aims at evaluating students’ self-perception of their competences and attitude towards the method of ePF throughout the Master’s Program. Each student participates at six points of time, leading to 1158 questionnaires up to December 2015. To enhance insight into the sustainability of the ePF-initiative, an alumni study, involving 1079 graduates is conducted. Results indicate, that students value the positive impact of the ePF on their (self-)reflection. When being asked about their most distinctive competences, students’ responses reflect the main emphasis of their previous ePF-sessions, thus indicating a positive impact of the ePF on students’ self-perception of their own competences. However, the results of the alumni study indicate, that graduates do not continue their ePF-work during their professional life.

Dreisiebner, G., Riebenbauer, E. and Stock, M. (2017): Using ePortfolios to Encourage Reflection and Competency Development. Results and Implications from an Accompanying Study and an Alumni Study, in: The Journal of Research in Business Education, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 31-47.

Contact: Gernot Dreisiebner, Department of Business Education and Development, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3534

 
Schlüsselwerke der Wirtschaftssoziologie

Mit den Schlüsselwerken der Wirtschaftssoziologie haben Klaus Kraemer und Florian Brugger ein neues Handbuch herausgegeben, das einen umfangreichen Überblick über die wichtigsten Monografien, Abhandlungen und Aufsätze der Wirtschaftssoziologie bietet. Im ersten Teil des Handbuchs werden die klassischen Werke und Inspirationsquellen der älteren, im zweiten Teil die wichtigsten Studien der neueren Wirtschaftssoziologie seit den 1980er Jahren vorgestellt. In einem einführenden Beitrag geben die beiden Herausgeber einen Überblick über die Geschichte und den Forschungsstand der Wirtschaftssoziologie, diskutieren das noch immer unausgeschöpfte Potential der Klassiker der Wirtschaftssoziologie und umreißen einige zentrale Forschungsdesiderate. Hieran anschließend stellen renommierte Autorinnen und Autoren über 60 Schlüsselwerke der angelsächsischen, französischen und deutschsprachigen Wirtschaftssoziologie vor. Das Handbuch ist in der von Andrea Maurer und Uwe Schimank herausgegebenen Reihe „Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft” des Verlages Springer VS erschienen.

Kraemer, K. und Brugger, F. (Ed.) (2017): Schlüsselwerke der Wirtschaftssoziologie, Springer VS, Wiesbaden.

Contact: Klaus Kraemer, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3546

 
On Public Good Provision with Dominant Strategies and Balanced Budget

Consider a mechanism for the binary public good provision problem that is dominant strategy incentive compatible (DSIC), ex-post individually rational (EPIR), and ex-post budget balanced (EPBB). It is well known that if there are only two agents, then any such mechanism must have a threshold (or fixed cost-sharing) form, providing the public good if and only if both agents have values that are at least their respective thresholds. When there are more than two agents, there are mechanisms that are DSIC, EPIR, and EPBB that are not of the threshold form. Any DSIC, EPIR, and EPBB mechanism that additionally satisfies that the lowest types expect zero net utility from participating are again of the threshold form. This additional condition arises endogenously when maximizing expected welfare subject to DSIC, EPIR, and EPBB.

Kuzmics, C. and Steg, J.-H. (2017): On Public Good Provision with Dominant Strategies and Balanced Budget, in: Journal of Economic Theory, Vol. 170, pp. 56-69, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.jet.2017.04.006 [03.05.2017].

Contact: Christoph Kuzmics, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7111

 
Positional preferences and efficient capital accumulation when households exhibit a preference for wealth

We study the impact of positional preferences – with respect to wealth in addition to consumption – on endogenous growth, welfare, and corrective taxation. We consider first an AK model, and then introduce public capital. Labour supply is exogenous. We find analytically that the presence of wealth positionality always causes distortions (although a preference for absolute wealth by itself is non-distortionary). Consumption positionality introduces a distortion only if wealth is an argument in the utility function and the marginal degree of positionality in wealth does not match that of consumption. Two corrective tax instruments, a consumption or an income tax, are required for internalization of externalities in an AK set-up; the optimal choice of public investment is an additional instrument when public capital is introduced. Numerical simulations – pointing towards high corrective tax rates and their strong impact on growth and welfare – complement the theoretical analysis.

Ghosh, S. and Wendner, R. (2017): Positional preferences and efficient capital accumulation when households exhibit a preference for wealth, in: Oxford Economic Papers, doi: doi.org/10.1093/oep/gpx027 [01.06.2017].

Contact: Ronald Wendner, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3458

 
Perceived Service Value - Implications for the viability of continuing education programmes

This article examines the perceived value of continuing education courses and asks how value is related to satisfaction, value for money judgements and willingness to pay for education. Data was collected through an online survey at four universities in two nations. A four-factor value structure was identified with the following dimensions: institutional image, career value, learning value and social value. Differences between Austrian and New Zealand based respondents in the relative importance of the four dimensions were observed and the possible origins of these differences are explored. We propose a theoretically informed model that is consistent with our observations.

Geertshuis, S. and Krickl, O. (2016): Perceived Service Value – Implications for the viability of continuing education programmes, in: Field, J., Schmidt-Hertha, B. und Waxenegger, A. (Ed.): Universities and Engagement – International perspectives on higher education and lifelong learning, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 80-89.

Contact: Otto Krickl, Department of Organization and Economics of Institutions, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7186

 
Approximation of the Knapsack Problems with Conflict and Forcing Graphs

We study the classical 0-1 knapsack problem with additional restrictions on pairs of items. A conflict constraint states that from a certain pair of items at most one item can be contained in a feasible solution. Reversing this condition, we obtain a forcing constraint stating that at least one of the two items must be included in the knapsack. A natural way for representing these constraints is the use of conflict (resp. forcing) graphs.
We derive a fairly complicated FPTAS for the knapsack problem on weakly chordal conflict graphs. Next, we show that the techniques of modular decompositions and clique separators, widely used in the literature for solving the independent set problem on special graph classes, can be applied to the knapsack problem with conflict graphs. In particular, we can show that every positive approximation result for the atoms of prime graphs arising from such a decomposition carries over to the original graph. We point out a number of structural results from the literature which can be used to show the existence of an FPTAS for several graph classes characterized by the exclusion of certain induced subgraphs. Finally, a PTAS for the knapsack problem with H-minor free conflict graph is derived. This includes planar graphs and, more general, graphs of bounded genus.

Pferschy, U. and Schauer, J. (2017): Approximation of Knapsack Problems with Conflict and Forcing Graphs, in: Journal of Combinatorial Optimization, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 1300-1323.

Contact: Ulrich Pferschy, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3496

 
Boost Entrepreneurship Education through Business Education

Entrepreneurship Education is a major concern to enable economic growth and sustainable development. According to the European Commission, the key competence entrepreneurship should be embedded into curricula across primary, secondary, vocational, higher and adult education before the end of 2015. This session concentrated on Vocational Education and Training and informed about various multidimensional learning and teaching approaches for the students' competence development according to a broad understanding of Entrepreneurship Education.
The focus was on action-oriented methods like Learning Office, Practice Enterprise (also Virtual Enterprise or Practice Firm) and Junior Company. These business simulations for learning purposes were introduced with theoretical background, practical examples and international platforms. After the discussion of their advantages and disadvantages, a combined concept for a comprehensive Entrepreneurship Education was developed in order to foster entrepreneurial, occupational and personal independence.

Riebenbauer, E., Dreisiebner, G. and Stock, M. (2016): Boost Entrepreneurship Education through Business Education, in: Proceedings of the 88th International SIEC-ISBE Conference International Society for Business Education, Graz and Maribor, July 31 to August 4, 2016, p. 7.

Contact: Elisabeth Riebenbauer, Department of Business Education and Development, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3532

 
From the Iron Curtain to the Schengen Area: Memory Cultures of Bordering Communist and Postcommunist Europe

This article is part of the special section titled From the Iron Curtain to the Schengen Area, guest edited by Wolfgang Mueller and Libora Oates-Indruchová.

Oates-Indruchová, L. and Mueller, W. (2017): From the Iron Curtain to the Schengen Area: Memory Cultures of Bordering Communist and Postcommunist Europe, in: East European Politics and Societies and Cultures, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 227-233.

Contact: Libora Oates-Indruchová, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7086

 
Hedonic Indexes for Public and Private Housing in Costa Rica: Prices, Quality and Government Policy

Purpose – This study aims to show how hedonic methods can be used to compare the performance of the public and private sector housing markets in Costa Rica.
Design/methodology/approach – Hedonic price indexes are computed using the adjacent-period method. Average housing quality is measured by comparing hedonic and median price indexes. The relative performance of the public and private sector residential construction is compared by estimating separate hedonic models for each sector. A private sector price is then imputed for each house built in the public sector, and a public sector price is imputed for each house built in the private sector.
Findings – The real quality-adjusted price of private housing rose by 12 per cent between 2000 and 2013, whereas the price of private housing rose by 9 per cent. The average quality of private housing rose by 45 per cent, whereas that of public housing fell by 18 per cent. Nevertheless, the hedonic imputation analysis reveals that public housing could not be produced more cheaply in the private sector.
Social implications – The quality of public housing has declined over time. The hedonic analysis shows that the decline is not because of a lack of competition between construction firms in the public sector. An alternative demand side explanation is provided.
Originality/value – This study applies hedonic methods in novel ways to compare the relative performance of the public and private housing sectors in Costa Rica. The results shed new light on the effectiveness of public sector housing programs.

Guevara, P., Hill, R. and Scholz, M. (2017): Hedonic Indexes for Public and Private Housing in Costa Rica: Prices, Quality and Government Policy, in: International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.140-155, doi: 10.1108/IJHMA-02-2016-0014.

Contact: Robert J. Hill, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3442

 
The Neoclassical Approach to Induced Technical Change: From Hicks to Acemoglu

This survey article provides a critical overview of the development of the neoclassical theory of induced technical change. From Hicks's introduction of the concept in his Theory of Wages up to the recent literature the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed models and the contexts in which they have been developed are outlined. It is shown that induced technical change has been invoked to explain various long-run distribution conundrums which could not be explained with standard neoclassical growth theory. The importance of induced technical change for the long-run distribution of income cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, we show that neoclassical models of induced technical change are still unsatisfactory in a number of respects.

Brugger, F. and Gehrke, C. (2016): The Neoclassical Approach to Induced Technical Change: From Hicks to Acemoglu, in: Metroeconomica, doi: 10.1111/meca.12141 [22.06.2016].

Contact: Christian Gehrke, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3457

 
Reziprokes Empowerment in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit: It takes two to tango

Dieser Beitrag stellt reziprokes Empowerment als ein viables Modell für Entwicklungszusammenarbeit im 21. Jahrhundert vor. Ausgangspunkt ist die fragwürdige Eindimensionalität von Entwicklungsanstrengungen im internationalen Feld. Die hegemoniale Haltung reproduziert Machtverhältnisse und steht somit einer Entwicklung im Sinne einer Befreiung entgegen. Um in einer interdependenten und multipolaren Weltordnung gegenseitige Veränderungsprozesse anzuregen, schlagen wir das Konzept von reziprokem Empowerment vor. Reziprokes Empowerment hat ein gutes Leben für alle WeltbürgerInnen zum Ziel. Reziprokes Empowerment ist dialogisch und stellt sich den Spannungsfeldern von Entwicklung. In diesem Sinne umarmt reziprokes Empowerment die Asymmetrie und bewirkt Bildungs- und Veränderungsprozesse auf beiden Seiten.

Pummer, C. and Pilaj, H. (2016): Reziprokes Empowerment in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit: It takes two to tango, in: Gmainer-Pranzl, F. und Schottenhammer, A. (Ed.): Wissenschaft und globales Denken, Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp. 447-460.

Contact: Herwig Pilaj, Department of Finance, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3515

 
Comparing information literacy of student beginners among different branches of study

In our paper we present a study in which we investigated the level of information literacy of first-year students across different studies offered by faculties at the University of Graz. Data were collected by means of a multiple-choice questionnaire. In total we analyzed 232 questionnaires completed by first-year students from six studies (faculties). The results show that the overall level of information literacy is mediocre. However, the difference in the level of information literacy across the studies is not as big as originally expected. The type of high school completed has a strong effect at least in the beginning of the studies. Another interesting result shows that the students rated their information literacy skills much higher than the test indicated. It can be concluded that multiple-choice questionnaires are an efficient and objective test instrument to inform the students that they are much less information literate than they believe themselves to be.

Maurer, A., Schlögl, C. and Dreisiebner, S. (2016): Comparing information literacy of student beginners among different branches of study, in: Libellarium, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 309-319, doi: dx.doi.org/10.15291/libellarium.v9i2.280.

Contact: Christian Schlögl, Department of Information Science and Information Systems, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3566

 
An experimental study on bribes, detection probability and principal witness policy

We present the results of a laboratory bribery experiment in which two bidders compete for a contract and make offers to an employee of a firm which can be accompanied by a bribe. The employee then decides who to award the contract to. The roles of both bidders and the employee are played by subjects in the laboratory. We test whether different probabilities of a bribe being discovered influence the honesty of a contract placing. In a further treatment we investigate the effect of the possibility of cooperating with the authority (principal witness) in combination with a leniency policy in the form of a reduced fine for the all players who cooperate with the authorities. We find that the presence of a leniency policy reduces the number of bribes offered, but at the same time makes the bribes that are offered more profitable for corrupt bidders who earn more, especially under the principal witness condition.

Christöfl, A., Leopold-Wildburger, U. and Rasmußen, A. (2017): An experimental study on bribes, detection probability and principal witness policy, in: Journal of Business Economics, doi: 10.1007/s11573-017-0846-8 [16.01.2017].

Contact: Ulrike Leopold-Wildburger, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3492

 
Zyklos 3. Jahrbuch für Theorie und Geschichte der Soziologie

Der dritte Band von „ZYKLOS: Jahrbuch für die Theorie und Geschichte der Soziologie”, hrsg. von Stephan Moebius, Martin Endreß und Klaus Lichtblau, widmet sich einer theorieorientierten Geschichte der Soziologie. Die Aufsätze des ersten Teils von ZYKLOS 3 analysieren unterschiedliche Facetten von Ludwik Flecks wissens- und wissenschaftssoziologischen Beiträgen. Weitere Aufsätze behandeln u.a. die Entstehungsgeschichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie, die Marx-Rezeption in der deutschsprachigen Soziologie nach 1945 sowie eine Debatte über die Geschichtsschreibung der deutschsprachigen Soziologie nach 1949. Die Rubrik „Nachrichten aus der soziologiegeschichtlichen Forschung” beginnt mit Nekrologen für Thomas Luckmann und Walter Rüegg. Ferner wird über Heinrich Popitz’ Nachlass in Konstanz informiert. In der Rubrik „Editionsprojekte” finden sich Beiträge über die Simmel-Gesamtausgabe, die Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe sowie über die „Schwarzen Hefte” von Martin Heidegger. In der Rubrik „Unveröffentlichtes aus den Archiven” bietet der vorliegende Jahrgang von ZYKLOS den bisher unveröffentlichten Text von Ferdinand Tönnies „Die Berechtigung der Soziologie als akademisches Lehrfach (Denkschrift, gerichtet an das Kultusministerium)” aus dem Jahr 1929.

Endreß, M., Lichtblau, K. and Moebius, S. (Ed.) (2017): Zyklos 3. Jahrbuch für Theorie und Geschichte der Soziologie, Springer VS, Wiesbaden.

Contact: Stephan Moebius, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7081

 
Maxmin Envy-Free Division of Indivisible Items

Assume that two players have strict rankings over an even number of indivisible items. We propose two algorithms to find balanced allocations of these items that are maximin-maximize the minimum rank of the items that the players receive – and are envy-free and Pareto-optimal, if such allocations exist. To determine whether an envy-free allocation exists, we introduce a simple condition on preference profiles; in fact, our condition guarantees the existence of a maximin, envy-free, and Pareto-optimal allocation. Although not strategy-proof, our algorithms would be difficult to manipulate unless a player has complete information about its opponent’s ranking. We assess the applicability of the algorithms to real-world problems, such as allocating marital property in a divorce or assigning people to committees or projects.

Brams, S. J., Kilgour, D. M. and Klamler, C. (2017): Maximin Envy-Free Division of Indivisible Items, in: Group Decision and Negotiation, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 115-131.

Contact: Christian Klamler, Department of Public Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3465

 
Consistent economic cross-sectoral climate change impact scenario analysis: Method and application to Austria

Climate change triggers manifold impacts at the national to local level, which in turn have various economy-wide implications (e.g. on welfare, employment, or tax revenues). In its response, society needs to prioritize which of these impacts to address and what share of resources to spend on each respective adaptation. A prerequisite to achieving that end is an economic impact analysis that is consistent across sectors and acknowledges intersectoral and economy-wide feedback effects. Traditional Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are usually operating at a level too aggregated for this end, while bottom-up impact models most often are not fully comprehensive, focusing on only a subset of climate sensitive sectors and/or a subset of climate change impact chains. Thus, we develop here an approach which applies climate and socioeconomic scenario analysis, harmonized economic costing, and sector explicit bandwidth analysis in a coupled framework of eleven (bio)physical impact assessment models and a uniform multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model. In applying this approach to the alpine country of Austria, we find that macroeconomic feedbacks can magnify sectoral climate damages up to fourfold, or that by mid-century costs of climate change clearly outweigh benefits, with net costs rising two- to fourfold above current damage cost levels. The resulting specific impact information – differentiated by climate and economic drivers – can support sector-specific adaptation as well as adaptive capacity building.

Steininger, K. W., Bednar-Friedl, B., Formayer, H. and König, M. (2016): Consistent economic cross-sectoral climate change impact scenario analysis: Method and application to Austria, in: Climate Services, Vol. 1, pp. 39-52, doi: 10.1016/j.cliser.2016.02.003.

Contact: Karl Steininger, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3451

 
Demografische Prozesse in postsozialistischen EU-Ländern. Hajnal, Demografische Krise und die Postmoderne (1985/90 - 2015)

Betrachtet man zentrale demografische Indikatoren bzw. deren Entwicklung in den postsozialistischen Ländern seit 1985/90 bzw. vergleicht man diese mit den niemals sozialistischen EU-Ländern des „Westens” so fallen einerseits gemeinsame Tendenzen auf, andererseits bleiben aber Spezifika erhalten. In den ehemals sozialistischen Ländern steigt das Erstheiratsalter dramatisch an, dennoch bleiben alle diese Länder bis heute unter dem westeuropäischem Niveau. Alte osteuropäische Muster, die schon John Hajnal für das 18. Jahrhundert entdeckt hatte, wie etwa das jüngere Erstheiratsalter, hielten offensichtlich auch über die sozialistische Zeit stand. Andererseits beförderten die demografische Krise als Folge der Transformationskrise und allgemeine postmoderne Tendenzen eine Annäherung der Werte an jene Westeuropas.

Teibenbacher, P. (2017): Demografische Prozesse in postsozialistischen EU-Ländern. Hajnal, Demografische Krise und die Postmoderne (1985/90 – 2015), in: Karner, S., Botz, G. und Konrad, H. (Ed.): Epochenbrüche im 20.Jahrhundert. Beiträge, Veröffentlichungen des Clusters Geschichte der Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft, Band 4, Böhlau, Wien, pp. 227-244.

ContaCt: Peter Teibenbacher, Department of Economic, Social and Business History, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3523

 
Sourcing Strategies of a Multi-Input-Product Firm

Firms commonly manufacture multiple products using multiple complementary inputs. The multi-input-multi-product environment generates interactions among products yielding the following results for the firm’s sourcing strategies: (i) A multi-input-multi-product firm might optimally deviate from an isolated least-cost comparison, i.e. might produce in-house even if marginal in-house production cost exceeds the per-unit input price (and vice versa). Such a deviation can be optimal even if the input supplier can engage in price discrimination and can condition its input prices on the individual products that the firm manufactures. (ii) An outsourcing wave can arise in that concurrently outsourcing all inputs can be profitable for the firm even though outsourcing each input individually is unprofitable. (iii) More competition on the supplier market can decrease the multi-input-multi-product firm’s profit.

Kopel, M., Löffler, C. and Pfeiffer, T. (2016): Sourcing Strategies of a Multi-Input-Multi-Product Firm, in: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Vol. 127, pp. 30-45.

Contact: Michael Kopel, Department of Organization and Economics of Institutions, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7182

 
The Joint Effects of Ex Ante Contractual Completeness and Ex Post Governance on Compliance in Franchised Marketing Channels

This study examines the heretofore neglected joint effects of ex ante contractual completeness and ex post governance on compliance in a franchise setting. In contrast to much of the extant literature which views contractual completeness in the aggregate, the present research disaggregates contractual completeness into ex ante monitoring and enforcement completeness, and additionally distinguishes between ex post monitoring and enforcement, allowing for a nuanced examination of the joint effects of different types of ex ante and ex post governance on compliance. Additionally, the authors advance the concept of consummate compliance, thereby complementing the literature which tends to view compliance solely in terms of perfunctory compliance – an important distinction since the results suggest that perfunctory compliance has a negative, whereas consummate compliance has a positive, relationship with customer satisfaction. Drawing on multiple data sources, the authors demonstrate that ex ante monitoring completeness positively moderates the relationship between ex post monitoring and both types of compliance; however, ex ante enforcement completeness negatively moderates the relationship between ex post enforcement and both types of compliance.

Kashyap, V. and Murtha, B. R. (2016): The Joint Effects of Ex Ante Contractual Completeness and Ex Post Governance on Compliance in Franchised Marketing Channels, in: Journal of Marketing, DOI: 10.1509/jm.14.0089 [14.12.2016].

Contact: Vishal Kashyap, Department of Marketing, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7210
 
Career patterns of young highly skilled migrants from Southeast Europe in Austria: Investigating accumulation and use of career capital

Using a Bourdieuian perspective, the purpose of the paper is to analyse how highly skilled migrants (HSMs) from transition economies develop their careers by accumulating and using career capital upon migration. An interpretative approach was chosen to depict the career patterns of 18 HSMs from Southeast Europe. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data about their career experiences in Western Europe and their home countries. Findings reveal four different career patterns that show how individuals develop their careers and adjust to the work environment by accumulating and using career capital. Building up country-specific work-related social contacts and gaining work experience in local companies were found to represent key elements in their adjustment process. Additionally, the findings show that organisational support facilitates the processes of individual adjustment. The paper emphasises that individuals do not always have to assimilate to the work environment of the host country but can also bargain over the value of their career capital in their adjustment process. Contrasting with previous literature this perspective presents a novelty.

Winterheller, J. and Hirt, C. (2017): Career patterns of young highly skilled migrants from Southeast Europe in Austria: Investigating accumulation and use of career capital, in: Personnel Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 222–236.

Contact: Julian Winterheller, Department of Human Resources Management, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7180
 
Generating subtour elimination constraints for the TSP from pure integer solutions

The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the most prominent combinatorial optimization problems. Given a complete graph G=(V,E) and non-negative distances d for every edge, the TSP asks for a shortest tour through all vertices with respect to the distances d. The method of choice for solving the TSP to optimality is a branch and cut approach. Usually the integrality constraints are relaxed first and all separation processes to identify violated inequalities are done on fractional solutions. In our approach we try to exploit the impressive performance of current ILP-solvers and work only with integer solutions without ever interfering with fractional solutions. We stick to a very simple ILP-model and relax the subtour elimination constraints only. The resulting problem is solved to integer optimality, violated constraints (which are trivial to find) are added and the process is repeated until a feasible solution is found. In order to speed up the algorithm we pursue several attempts to find as many relevant subtours as possible. These attempts are based on the clustering of vertices with additional insights gained from empirical observations and random graph theory. Computational results are performed on test instances taken from the TSPLIB95 and on random Euclidean graphs.

Pferschy, U. and Staněk, R. (2017): Generating subtour elimination constraints for the TSP from pure integer solutions, in: Central European Journal of Operations Research, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 231-260.

Contact: Rostislav Staněk, Department of Production and Operations Management, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7246

 
Der Einfluss der Abgeltungssteuer auf die Haltedauer von Aktien - eine empirische Untersuchung von Directors' Dealings am deutschen Kapitalmarkt

Durch die Offenlegungspflichten von Directors’ Dealings (Insidergeschäften) von deutschen börsennotierten Kapitalgesellschaften können wir individuelle Haltedauern von Aktien ermitteln und empirisch analysieren. Da Gewinne aus privaten Aktienverkäufen unter dem Halbeinkünfteverfahren erst nach Ablauf der einjährigen Spekulationsfrist steuerfrei vereinnahmt werden konnten, entstand ein Lock-in-Effekt. Mit der Einführung der Abgeltungssteuer entfällt dieser Anreiz, da Gewinne aus privaten Aktienverkäufen unabhängig von der Haltedauer besteuert werden. Basierend auf einer Stichprobe von 1.211 Insidergeschäften (922 davon aus dem Halbeinkünfteverfahren und 289 aus der Abgeltungssteuer) zeigen wir, dass die Haltedauer für Gewinngeschäfte unter der Abgeltungssteuer wie erwartet signifikant niedriger ausfällt. Im Gegensatz dazu weisen Verlustgeschäfte unter der Abgeltungssteuer ebenfalls eine niedrigere Haltedauer auf, weshalb eine steuerlich motivierte Wahl des Veräußerungszeitpunktes für Verlustgeschäfte nicht plausibel erscheint.

Niemann, R. and Rünger, S. (2017): Der Einfluss der Abgeltungssteuer auf die Haltedauer von Aktien – eine empirische Untersuchung von Directors’ Dealings am deutschen Kapitalmarkt, in: ZfbF Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, 69. Jg., Heft 1, pp. 41-80.

Contact: Rainer Niemann, Department of Accounting and Taxation, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 6444

 
Wipäd - und dann? Ergebnisse aus der aktuellen Abso-Befragung am Standort Graz

Das Studium der Wirtschaftspädagogik weist in Österreich eine polyvalente Ausrichtung auf. Es dient der wissenschaftlichen Berufsvorbildung für die facheinschlägige Lehrtätigkeit einerseits und bereitet andererseits auf unterschiedliche Beschäftigungsfelder in Wirtschaft und Verwaltung, Forschung, aber ebenso in der Erwachsenenbildung vor. Dieses mehrfachqualifizierende Studium ermöglicht somit den Weg in verschiedene Berufsfelder. Die spannende Fragestellung ist nun, welche Wege tatsächlich von den Absolventinnen und Absolventen der Wirtschaftspädagogik am Standort Graz eingeschlagen werden. Im Beitrag werden die zentralen Ergebnisse einer aktuellen Abso-Studie dargestellt, die im Herbst 2015 durchgeführt wurde und für die alle Absolvent/inn/en seit der Implementierung des Studienplans im Jahr 1979, soweit Kontaktdaten eruierbar waren (dies waren 820 Studierende), befragt wurden. Mit einer für eine Online-Befragung sehr hohen Rücklaufquote von 55% können nun belastbare Aussagen zu den Studienmotiven, den beruflichen Wegen sowie den Berufszielen getroffen werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Polyvalenz und die damit verbundene Wechselmöglichkeit als Perspektive und Orientierung für die Absolvent/inn/en auch längerfristig relevant bleibt.

Zehetner, E., Stock, M. and Slepcevic-Zach, P. (2016): Wipäd – und dann? Ergebnisse aus der aktuellen Abso-Befragung am Standort Graz, in: wissenplus – Sonderausgabe Wissenschaft, Heft 3-15/16, pp. 30–33.

Contact: Michaela Stock, Department of Business Education and Development, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7272

 
Verbraucherorganisationen und Verbraucherpolitik als Intermediäre der Nachhaltigkeit. Eine Analyse der institutionellen und organisationalen Einbettung nachhaltigen Konsums

Dieser Beitrag greift aktuelle Erklärungsansätze auf, die nachhaltigen Konsum als eine sozial und institutionell eingebettete Praxis verstehen. Die deutschen Verbraucherorganisationen und die staatliche Verbraucherpolitik werden als ein zentraler Bestandteil der institutionellen und organisationalen Einbettung des nachhaltigen Konsums kenntlich gemacht. Der Aufsatz arbeitet systematisch die Strategien dieser verbraucherpolitischen Akteure heraus, um zu verdeutlichen, wie das soziale und organisationale Umfeld von Konsumenten und Anbietern auf nachhaltige Konsummuster einwirkt. Die Analyse zeigt, dass verbraucherpolitische Organisationen zentrale Intermediäre nachhaltigen Konsums darstellen, die die Handlungsabsichten, die Einstellungen, das Wissen sowie die Koordination von Akteuren im Bereich nachhaltiger Märkte beeinflussen.

Nessel, S. (2017): Verbraucherorganisationen und Verbraucherpolitik als Intermediäre der Nachhaltigkeit. Eine Analyse der institutionellen und organisationalen Einbettung nachhaltigen Konsums, in: Berliner Journal für Soziologie, 26. Jg., Heft 2, pp. 227–248, doi:10.1007/s11609-016-0316-0 [17.01.2017].

Contact: Sebastian Nessel, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3547

 
Proportional Borda allocations

In this paper we study the allocation of indivisible items among a group of agents, a problem which has received increased attention in recent years, especially in areas such as computer science and economics. A major fairness property in the fair division literature is proportionality, which is satisfied whenever each of the n agents receives at least 1/n of the value attached to the whole set of items. To simplify the determination of values of (sets of) items from ordinal rankings of the items, we use the Borda rule, a concept used extensively and well-known in voting theory. Although, in general, proportionality cannot be guaranteed, we show that, under certain assumptions, proportional allocations of indivisible items are possible and finding such allocations is computationally easy.

Darmann, A. and Klamler, C. (2016): Proportional Borda allocations, in: Social Choice Welfare, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 543-558.

Contact: Christian Klamler, Department of Public Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3465

 
Edgeworth's conjecture and the number of agents and commodities

We answer the question asked by Robert Aumann as to whether core equivalence depends on there being ”many more agents than commodities.” We show that for a large class of commodity spaces, which might be infinite-dimensional and even non-separable, core equivalence is indeed equivalent to the presence of ”many more agents than commodities” when allocations are Bochner integrable. By contrast, we show that in a classical model of an atomless economy with an infinite-dimensional commodity space, the model where the commodity space is L∞(μ) with the Mackey topology and allocations are Gelfand integrable, core equivalence holds in full generality, even when there are ”many more commodities than agents.” The assumptions we make on economies are much weaker than what is commonly used in core equivalence results for infinite-dimensional commodity spaces and reduce to Aumann’s original assumptions when there are finitely many commodities.

Greinecker, M. and Podczeck, K. (2016): Edgeworth’s conjecture and the number of agents and commodities, in: Economic Theory, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 93-130, DOI: 10.1007/s00199-015-0866-y [10.03.2015].

Contact: Michael Greinecker, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3454

 
Versorgungsstrukturen in Österreich im Hinblick auf Krankenanstaltenbetten, Ärzte und Apotheken

Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird untersucht, ob es in Österreich im Hinblick auf die vier Versorgungszonen sowie 32 Versorgungsregionen eine ausgewogene Versorgung mit Krankenanstaltenbetten, Ärzten und Apotheken gibt. Die Untersuchung legt offen, dass die Versorgung mit Krankenanstaltenbetten und die Basisversorgung mit Allgemeinmedizinern mit Kassenvertrag in allen Versorgungszonen und Versorgungsregionen in beinahe gleichem Ausmaß gewährleistet sind. Unterschiede in den Versorgungsstrukturen sind hinsichtlich der Fachärzte zu beobachten, wie etwa eine gewisse Konzentration von Fachärzten auf Ballungszentren, insbesondere Wien, zeigt.

Reichmann, G. and Sommersguter-Reichmann, M. (2016): Versorgungsstrukturen in Österreich im Hinblick auf Krankenanstaltenbetten, Ärzte und Apotheken, in: Soziale Sicherheit, Heft 6, pp. 270-279.

Contact: Margit Sommersguter-Reichmann, Department of Finance, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3516

 
Employee share ownership in Germany: A cluster analysis of firms' aims

Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost equally important to all kinds of firms.

Ortlieb, R., Matiaske, W. and Fietze, S. (2016): Employee share ownership in Germany: A cluster analysis of firms’ aims, in: Management Review, Vol. 27, Issue 4, pp. 285-303.

Contact: Renate Ortlieb, Department of Human Resources Management, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7189

 
Die Wirkung steuerlicher Maßnahmen zur Förderung von Eigenkapital - eine Analyse am Beispiel von Österreich

Wenngleich das geltende österreichische Steuersystem eine steuerliche Ungleichbehandlung von Eigen- und Fremdkapital verursacht, versuchte der Gesetzgeber in den letzten Jahren durch unterschiedliche Maßnahmen, die Eigenkapitalbildung bei österreichischen Personengesellschaften zu stärken. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert in diesem Zusammenhang die Wirkungsweise der Thesaurierungsbegünstigung (§ 11a öEStG) sowie des Investitionsfreibetrages (§ 10 öEStG) und untersucht empirisch, ob diese beiden Maßnahmen zu einem Anstieg der Eigenkapitalquote österreichischer Unternehmen führten. Basierend auf einer Stichprobe von 111.617 Unternehmen über den Zeitraum 2000 bis 2013 kann keine signifikante Erhöhung der Eigenkapitalquoten der begünstigen Unternehmen nachgewiesen werden. Insofern sind beide, die Prinzipien von ACE-Steuersystemen nur teilweise umsetzende, Maßnahmen nur unzureichende Instrumente der Förderung des Eigenkapitalzuwachses bzw. der Eigenkapitalsicherung.

Petutschnig, M. and Rünger, S. (2016): Die Wirkung steuerlicher Maßnahmen zur Förderung von Eigenkapital – eine Analyse am Beispiel von Österreich, in: Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis, 68. Jg., Heft 4, pp. 359-378.

Contact: Silke Rünger, Department of Accounting and Taxation, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 6442

 
Strategy map concepts in a balanced scorecard cockpit improve performance

In both academia and practice, strategy implementation generally receives less attention than strategic planning, although it is no less important. In our experimental study, we address the following research question: Do different cockpits result in different strategy-implementation decisions and different performance? By using a strategic-operations research perspective, we designed a strategy-implementation task as a closed-loop control task. An ambitious growth strategy placed in the context of a mortgage brokerage business had to be successfully implemented by deciding on price, employees and expenditures in Business Concept and Technology. Compared to two other tools, the balanced-scorecard strategy map cockpit was the interface that provided the most focused and useful information in support of participants when carrying out their tasks. By comparing business-reporting tools, we can state that our research has a theoretical, as well as a practical, contribution. Modeling the impact of management performance measurement is of great interest for both practitioners and management scholars.

Hu, B., Leopold-Wildburger, U. and Strohhecker, J. (2017): Strategy map concepts in a balanced scorecard cockpit improve performance, in: European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 258, Issue 2, pp. 664-676.

Contact: Ulrike Leopold-Wildburger, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3492

 
Unraveling a Tradition, or Spinning a Myth?: Gender Critique in Czech Society and Culture

The hostility that met feminist ideas and gender equality issues in East Central Europe (ECE) after the demise of the Communist regimes was accompanied by a notion that feminism was imported to these societies after 1989. In the Czech Republic, the record of the publishing output by feminist scholars in the 1990s, however, rather speaks against this myth. Drawing on existing scholarship and the author’s own research on cultural discourses of gender and on socialist state science policies and censorship, this article argues that there has been a long tradition of gender critique that was present in a variety of discourses even during late state socialism. It proposes that the feminist impulse began in the 19th century and continued in some form throughout the 20th century. It then examines how the myth of the feminist import came to exist and what were the possible sources of the hostility toward feminism in the 1990s.

Oates-Indruchová, L. (2016): Unraveling a Tradition, or Spinning a Myth? Gender Critique in Czech Society and Culture, in: Slavic Review, Vol. 75, No. 4, pp. 919-943.

Contact: Libora Oates-Indruchová, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 7086

 
Konkurrenz im nationalen Container

Ein Interview mit Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klaus Kraemer vom Institut für Soziologie zum neuen Nationalismus in Europa wurde im Blog zur Zeitschrift OXI veröffentlicht.

Kraemer, K. (2016): Konkurrenz im nationalen Container, in: OXI, Blog, oxiblog.de/konkurrenz-im-nationalen-container/ [08.12.2016].

Contact: Klaus Kraemer, Department of Sociology, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3546

 
Hedonic Price-to-Rent Ratios, User Cost, and the Detection of Departures from Equilibrium in the Housing Market

Departures from equilibrium in the housing market can be detected by comparing the actual price-rent ratio with the price-rent ratio derived from the user cost equilibrium condition. The equilibrium price-rent ratio, however, assumes that the sold and rented dwellings being compared are of equal quality, which is typically not the case. Using hedonic methods applied to prices and rents for 730,000 houses in Sydney, Australia, we find that quality-adjusting reduces the actual price-rent ratio by on average 18%. Failure to make such a correction therefore will seriously bias the results towards a finding that the price-rent ratio is above its equilibrium level. We also explore ways of imputing the expected capital gain – a key input into the equilibrium price-rent ratio formula, and show that price-rent ratios (both actual and equilibrium) vary in systematic ways over the housing distribution. This latter result implies that it is not enough to simply focus on the median, as different results may pertain for other quantiles.

Hill, R. J. and Syed, I. A. (2016): Hedonic Price-to-Rent Ratios, User Cost, and the Detection of Departures from Equilibrium in the Housing Market, in: Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 56, pp. 60-72.

Contact: Robert J. Hill, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3442

 
Multiple carbon accounting to support just and effective climate policies

Negotiating reductions in greenhouse gas emission involves the allocation of emissions and of emission reductions to specific agents, and notably, within the current UN framework, to associated countries. As production takes place in supply chains, increasingly extending over several countries, there are various options available in which emissions originating from one and the same activity may be attributed to different agents along the supply chain and thus to different countries. In this way, several distinct types of national carbon accounts can be constructed. We argue that these accounts will typically differ in the information they provide to individual countries on the effects their actions have on global emissions; and they may also, to varying degrees, prove useful in supporting the pursuit of an effective and just climate policy. None of the accounting systems, however, prove 'best' in achieving these aims under real-world circumstances; we thus suggest compiling reliable data to aid in the consistent calculation of multiple carbon accounts on a global level.

Steininger, K. W., Lininger, C., Meyer, L. H., Muñoz, P. and Schinko, T. (2016): Multiple carbon accounting to support just and effective climate policies, in: Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, pp. 35-41, DOI: 10.1038/nclimate286 [23.11.2015].

Contact: Karl Steininger, Department of Economics, Phone: +43 (0)316/380 - 3451

 

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